On Wings

3 02 2009


The wing is the corporeal element which is most akin to the divine, and which by nature tends to soar aloft and carry that which gravitates downwards into the upper region, which is the habitation of the gods. The divine is beauty, wisdom, goodness, and the like; and by these the wing of the soul is nourished, and grows apace; but when fed upon evil and foulness and the opposite of good, wastes and falls away. Zeus, the mighty lord, holding the reins of a winged chariot, leads the way in heaven, ordering all and taking care of all; and there follows him the array of gods and demigods, marshalled in eleven bands; Hestia alone abides at home in the house of heaven; of the rest they who are reckoned among the princely twelve march in their appointed order. They see many blessed sights in the inner heaven, and there are many ways to and fro, along which the blessed gods are passing, every one doing his own work; he may follow who will and can, for jealousy has no place in the celestial choir. But when they go to banquet and festival, then they move up the steep to the top of the vault of heaven. The chariots of the gods in even poise, obeying the rein, glide rapidly; but the others labour, for the vicious steed goes heavily, weighing down the charioteer to the earth when his steed has not been thoroughly trained:-and this is the hour of agony and extremest conflict for the soul. For the immortals, when they are at the end of their course, go forth and stand upon the outside of heaven, and the revolution of the spheres carries them round, and they behold the things beyond. But of the heaven which is above the heavens, what earthly poet ever did or ever will sing worthily? It is such as I will describe; for I must dare to speak the truth, when truth is my theme. There abides the very being with which true knowledge is concerned; the colourless, formless, intangible essence, visible only to mind, the pilot of the soul. The divine intelligence, being nurtured upon mind and pure knowledge, and the intelligence of every soul which is capable of receiving the food proper to it, rejoices at beholding reality, and once more gazing upon truth, is replenished and made glad, until the revolution of the worlds brings her round again to the same place. In the revolution she beholds justice, and temperance, and knowledge absolute, not in the form of generation or of relation, which men call existence, but knowledge absolute in existence absolute; and beholding the other true existences in like manner, and feasting upon them, she passes down into the interior of the heavens and returns home; and there the charioteer putting up his horses at the stall, gives them ambrosia to eat and nectar to drink.

-from Plato’s Phaedrus

Plato’s Angel

13 06 2008

…[L]ater Neo-Platonists thought that Aristotle and Plato agree, are ‘harmonised’, as long as their respective philosophies are well distinguished. Aristotle is valid insofar as he refers to concrete things of our ordinary experience, the general terms we construct in our minds, and the language by which we express them. However, true reality, independent of human categorisation, is only hinted at by Aristotle, and is better studied through Plato. The latter Neo-Platonists frequently allude to the relative value of Aristotle and Plato in their harmonised scheme of Greek philosophy. They usually call Aristotle  daimonos, which in their Greek jargon has the double meaning of ‘ingenious’ and ‘an intermediate to god’. On the other hand, they invariably called Plato ‘divine’. In other words, Aristotle relates to Plato as an angel does to the word of God.

-Lucas Siorvanes, Proclus: Neo-Platonic Philosophy and Science